Thin-film analysis can be done in one of two ways in order to come up with the most relevant information on the material being tested. Top-down analysis can provide insight on the surface composition, roughness, and containment of the film. While on the other hand, a horizontal analysis can provide information on the thickness and grain size. The type of analysis chosen is determined by a few different factors. Film thickness can vary and knowing this will help in choosing the right analysis type. The lateral analytical area size is also an important feature to consider. Measurement sensitivity can vary, so it is necessary to keep this in mind as well. k-Space Associates, Inc. is a leading manufacturer of in-situ and ex-situ analysis tools for the semiconductor, thin-film, and photovoltaic industries.